Автор Тема: Шанкара и Вивека-чудамани  (Прочетена 121 пъти)

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Шанкара и Вивека-чудамани
« -: 16 декември 2019 07:58:16, понеделник »
Много преданоотдадени ведантисти и най-вече бхактисти се позовават на мизологичната Вивека-чудамани и съответно Шанкара, когато трябва да опровергаят прерогативите на разума в постигането на окончателното освобождение. Проблемът обаче, както и с много други поетични творби, които се радват на благосклонност от страна на простолюдието именно поради отхвърлянето на образованието и логиката като инструменти на истинното познание, е, че Шанкара просто не е автор на Вивека-чудамани. Неговото име се използва, да не кажем безсрамно, за да се припише авторитет на нещо, което притежава единствено художествена, но не и познавателна стойност. Същата подличка техника се прилага и по отношение имената на Айнщайн и други велики умове, които ще срещнете да "проповядват" учения, които - горките - дори не са и предполагали, че ще им влезат някога в устата.

Малко предистория за тези, които четат не само на български

Although one of the very popular books within the Advaita
tradition, Vivekachudamani was most likely not composed by Adi
Shankara. There are numerous facts that indicate this. Dr. A. J.
Alston says the following in the notes to his translation of the

"On grounds of style and terminology, it is thought today to have
been composed by some outstanding Advaitic author who lived some
centuries after the great Shankara of the commentaries. The last
verse [of Vivekachudamani], which attributes the work to
"Shankara", can hardly have been composed by Shankara himself, as
it was not his practice elsewhere to name himself at the
conclusion of a work. Amongst the considerable number of terms
used in the work that are not found in Shankara´s commentaries,
we might refer to the "powers of concealment and projection"
attributed to Ignorance (verses 110 to 117), the latter conceived
as a kind of entity wielding them, a conception found in
Shankara´s contemporary Mandana Mishra, but not found in his own
In Shankara´s one independent work of known authenticity, the
Upadesha Sahasri, the terminology does not stray beyond that
found in the commentaries. The tone is fully as lofty as that of
the Viveka-Chudamani, but cooler: references to the "bliss" of
the Absolute, which occur in nearly a fifth of the verses of the
Viveka-Chudamani, are sparse [...] The proliferation of different
metres in which the Vivieka-Chudamani is composed is
uncharacteristic of Shankara and his contemporaries, recalling
rather Sarvajnatma Muni or the logican Udayana, who belonged to a
later age. The date and authorship of the Viveka-Chudamani are in
fact not known, but the style and flavour of the work often
recall the Yoga Vashistha. Verse 431 is manifestly a quotation of
verse 3.9.12 of that work. The Yoga Vasishta is known from its
references to kings of Kashmir to have been composed towards the
end of the tenth century." (The Crest Jewel of Wisdom attributed
to Shri Shankaracharya, commentary by Hari Prasad Shastri,
translated by A J Alston, p.297).

Natalia Isayeva apparently came to the same conclusions. In her
book Shankara and Indian Philosophy she claims that while
Shankara´s authorship of Upadesha Sahasri is firmly established,
this is not the case regarding some other works. Isayeva writes:
"Far less probable is Sankara´s authorship of other short
treatises: Viveka-cudamani, Atma-bodha [...]". (p.98)

Moreover, in the introduction to his book on Vivekacudamani,
Swami Dayananda Saraswati says: "Even though the modern scholars
have difficulty in accepting the authorship of Sankara for this
book, in the teaching tradition of Sankara the book is used as a
text for initial study. I don´t think we lose anything even if
the authorship is attributed to any other Sankaracarya of one of
the various Sankara-mathas." (Swami Dayananda, Vivekacudamani:
Talks on 108 selected verses, p.1.) Swami Dayananda´s doubts
regarding the authorship are shared and emphazised by his
disciple, Dr Michael Comans. In The Method of Early Advaita
Vedanta, Comans says the follwing regarding his book: "I have not
relied at all on any works where there is considerable
uncertainity concerning authorship, such as the popular, but
post-Sankara, Vivekacudamani." (p.xii)

The authorship of Vivekachudamani is discussed also by Swami
Satchidanandendra Saraswati in his monumental work The Method of
Vedanta. Swami Satchidanandendra clearly refutes the idea that
Vivekachudamani is a work of Sankara, and he even have made an
attempt to identify the actual author. Swami Satchidanandendra
writes: "It [Vivekachudamani] follows a different poetical style
from that of the revered Commentator [Sankara]. It frequently
uses technical expressions not found in the Upanishads, Brahma
Sutras and Gita, expressions which only became common in
post-Sankara works. It quotes as authoritative works such as the
Yoga Vasistha and Suta Samhita, which are nowhere quoted by the
revered Commentator [Sankara]. All this shows that it was not a
work of Bhagavatpada / .../ it follows the Gita Tatparyabodhini
in style and all other points, and is a work of Sri
Sankarananda." (p.22)

Some further information: Sankarananda lived sometime in the
13th-14th centuries and was not, by the way, a Sankaracarya of
any of the four mathas.
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So, this is what I wrote two years ago. Moreover, Swami
Satchidanandendra Saraswati has discussed the authorship of
Vivekacudamani in detail in his introduction to the Kannada work
Prakarana Grantha Series-3. Some time back the member of this
list Sri Y.R. Bhaskarji translated this part into English and
posted it on Advaita-L. Personally, I find Satchidanandendra
Swamij´s points most convincing, and the authorship of
Vivekacudamani can hardly be ascribed to Adi Shankara before
these points (and several similar arguments presented by other
Vedantins and scholars) have been succesfully refuted.
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